This is an enormous subject: each year, new studies are published. What follows is a preliminary bibliography. For more extensive reading, see the on-line bibliographies under the second question above.

Tom Asbridge, The First Crusade: A New History (Oxford University Press, 2004)

Malcolm Barber, 'How the West saw Medieval Islam', History Today, 47, no. 5 (May 1997)

Marcus Bull, 'The roots of lay enthusiasm for the First Crusade', History, 78

Marcus Bull, 'The pilgrimage origins of the First Crusade', History Today, 47, no. 3 (March 1997)

Paul Chevedden, ‘“A Crusade from the First”: The Norman Conquest of Islamic Sicily, 1060–1091’, Al-Masaq, 22: 2 (2010), 191–225

H. J. Cowdrey, 'The papacy and the origins of crusading', Medieval History, 1, no. 3 (1991)

Susan Edgington, The First Crusade (Historical Association, 1996)

John France, Victory in the East: A Military History of the First Crusade (1994)

John France, 'The capture of Jerusalem', History Today, 47, no. 4 (April 1997)

Robert Irwin, 'Muslim responses to the Crusades', History Today, 47, no. 4 (April, 1997)

Conor Kostick, The siege of Jerusalem: Crusade and Conquest in 1099 (London: Continuum, 2009)

Simon Lloyd, 'The Crusades of St Louis', History Today, 47, no. 5 (May 1997)

Jonathan Phillips, 'Who were the First Crusaders?' History Today, 47, no. 3 (March 1997)

Jonathan Riley-Smith, What were the Crusades? (1977; 4th edn 2009)

Jonathan Riley-Smith, The First Crusade and the Idea of Crusading (1986)

Jonathan Riley-Smith, The First Crusaders, 1095-1131 (1985)

Elizabeth Siberry, Criticism of Crusading, 1095-1274 (1985)

Christopher Tyerman, 'Were there any Crusades in the Twelfth century?' English Historical Review, 110 (1995)


General reading

P. M. Holt, The Age of the Crusades (1986)

Hans E. Mayer, The Crusades (1972; 2nd edn 1988)

Jonathan Phillips, The Crusades, 1095-1197 (Harlow: Longman, 2002)

Jonathan Riley-Smith, The Crusades: A Short History (1987)

Jonathan Riley-Smith, ed., The Atlas of the Crusades (1991)

Jonathan Riley-Smith, ed., The Oxford Illustrated History of the Crusades (1995)

L. & J. Riley-Smith, The Crusades: Idea and Reality 1095-1274 (1981)

Kenneth M. Setton, gen. ed., A History of the Crusades, vols. 1, 2 (1955/6, 1962/9); also available online

Christopher Tyerman, God's War: A New History of the Crusades (London: Allen Lane, 2006).

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