1. One particularly notorious instance of this occurred in 298 at Tangier when a centurion, Marcellus, on the parade ground in full view of the whole army, threw down his weapons, renounced his oath of allegiance and 'put on record insane statements' as the offical record says. (The Roman Empire, ed. Lewis and Reinhold, p. 595).]

2. The first reference Jean Flori found to this division was in a letter Pope Zacharias wrote to Pepin the Short in 747. The first reference he found to three orders was in the writing of the monk Aymon of Auxerre, (p. 59-60), near the end of the ninth century - just in passing he refers to the three orders of modern society, the priests, the fighters and the farmers. At the end of the ninth century, King Alfred the Great's translation of Boethius' De consolatione philosophiae referred to the three instruments through whom the king must govern: those who pray, those who fight and those who work (p. 61).

3. It should still have been very limited violence, as in the case of Gerald of Aurillac: in 1054, at the Council of Narbonne, it was stated: 'No Christian should kill another Christian, for whoever kills a Christian undoubtedly sheds the blood of Christ'. [Quoted by Cowdrey, 'The Peace and Truce of God', Past and Present, 46 (1970), 53.] Yet, as they were carrying out God's will in restoring peace, obviously sometimes they would have to shed blood. The canonist Burchard of Worms, writing in around 1012, wrote that a soldier fighting in a just war is 'God's minister' provided he had right intention; as would be the case here. Yet, soldiers could still sin through greed for booty or anger, and then they would have to perform penance. [Burchard, in PL 140, quoted by J. Gilchrist, 'The papacy and war against the "Saracens"', International History Review, 10 (1988), 174-97.]